Boletim de Indústria Animal 2021-11-11T16:02:27-02:00 Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa Open Journal Systems <p align="center"><img src="/bia/public/site/images/fprado/download2.jpg" alt=""></p> <p align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'book antiqua';">O Boletim de Indústria Animal-BIA é uma revista científica de produção animal e áreas afins, de publicação contínua de acesso livre, on-line, editado pelo Instituto de Zootecnia, da Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de São Paulo. O BIA tem por objetivo publicar artigos científicos originais em português e inglês, que contribuam para o desenvolvimento da produção animal, nas áreas de Aquicultura, Etologia e Ambiência, Forragicultura e Pastagens, Genética, Melhoramento Animal, Métodos Quantitativos e Economia, Nutrição Animal, Qualidade de Produtos de Origem Animal, Reprodução Animal, Sanidade Animal, e Sistemas de Produção e Agronegócios. Os manuscritos enviados ao Boletim de Indústria Animal devem ser inéditos e não podem ser publicados ou submetidos à publicação em outro meio de divulgação simultaneamente, com exceção de anais de congresso. O BIA publica artigos científicos. O conteúdo dos manuscritos submetidos à publicação no BIA é de responsabilidade exclusiva de seu(s) autor(es)</span><strong style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'book antiqua';"><em>.</em></strong></p> 80 anos de História - Aniversário BIA 2021-01-29T17:36:53-02:00 C. M. P. Barbosa 2021-01-29T00:00:00-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reconnecting nature and agricultural production: mixed cropping systems as a way forward sustainable intensification 2021-07-15T15:21:22-03:00 P. C. F. Carvalho E. D. Souza L. G. O. Denardin T. R. Kunrath D. R. Machado W. Souza Filho A. P. Martins T. Tiecher <p>In the last decades, population growth worldwide boosts agricultural demand for food production. This huge driver rendered global food production more and more specialized, so agricultural landscapes became uniform and monotonic. The loss of diversity is a strong evidence of how modern agricultural landscapes have been disconnecting from nature. Evidence of environmental side-effects from this pathway are abundant in literature. Now, society is pressing towards changing practices aiming for healthy diets and sustainable food production systems. This raises the question: how to reconnect nature and agriculture in the context of future food production? In this review we propose a reconnection process based on the principles of ecological intensification or sustainable intensification. The integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) are the most consolidated technological pathway for reconciling crop production with natural processes. These systems are diverse and can partially mimic natural ecosystems exploring the synergies of natural biological processes, while achieving high levels of food production. ICLS promote soil improvements and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, reducing the agricultural share of global warming and climate change. Besides, these systems are more efficient in the use of nutrients and can optimize the use of other inputs such as pesticides. We present evidence of soil health and biogeochemical cycle restoration in addition to system stability improvement, and assume those symptoms as evidence of mixing crops and livestock fostering reconnection with natural processes.</p> 2021-07-15T11:26:52-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Interval between defoliation and fertilization of Panicum maximum cultivars 2021-11-11T14:19:20-02:00 A. M. Motta L. G. Mota K. K. Melo P. R. Silva A. R. M. Santos L. J. M. Motta C. H. A. Cabral C. E. A. Cabral <p>Forage is a low-cost food for cattle production. To achieve maximum economic and productive efficiency, nitrogen dose must be adjusted as well as the ideal time to carry out the application. Thereby, this work aimed to identify the appropriate moment to realize nitrogen maintenance fertilization on cultivars of Panicum maximum (syn. Megathyrsus maximus): BRS Tamani e MG 12 Paredão. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. The first experiment (Experiment 1) at Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, and the second experiment (Experiment 2) at Federal University of Rondonópolis. Treatments consisted of five intervals between forage defoliation and nitrogen fertilization: 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. Harvests were done when Tamani and MG 12 Paredão guinea grass reached 30 + 0.70 and 78 + 0.70 cm, respectively. The intervals between forage defoliation and nitrogen fertilization did not influence the development of MG 12 Paredão, except for tiller number. In contrast, the intervals between forage defoliation and nitrogen fertilization of BRS Tamani changed the leaf number, tiller number, dry mass of each leaf blade, dry mass of each tiller, leaf blade dry mass, stem dry mass and shoot dry mass. The longer the interval between defoliation and nitrogen fertilization on BRS Tamani, the greater the decrease in development, which impacted negatively on forage mass. There was no common biological response for both cultivars, even belonging to the same species, therefore, MG 12 Paredão has flexibility for fertilization timing, while BRS Tamani fertilization should be performed as close as possible to defoliation.</p> 2021-11-11T14:19:19-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pupunha heart of palm residue silage as an option of roughage for ruminants 2021-02-01T09:22:21-02:00 J. E. Moraes T. L. Reis E. J. Fuzitani E. R. Damatto Júnior C. M. T. Maioli W. V. B. Soares M. S. Bueno V. T. Paulino <p>It was aimed in this study to evaluate the ensiled pejibaye&nbsp; residue in the feeding of ruminants as roughage. For the <em>in vitro</em> digestibility assay, a randomized block design was used, with four treatments (pejibaye residue without additives; pejibaye residue + banana residue; pejibaye residue + rice residue and pejibaye residue + citrus pulp), with four replications. The variables studied were: chemical composition, specific mass, pH, average particle size, fermentation temperature and fermentative losses. Apparent digestibility was performed with sheep in a completely randomized design, to evaluate the same treatments mentioned above, using five replications. Heart-of-palm pejibaye residue silages showed average particle size, pH and density values within the range appropriate for their manufacture. Among the additives used in this study, silage with 15 g/100g of rice provided improvements in several nutritional parameters, such as DM, NDF, ADF, CF and NDF/NFC. High moisture content impairs the ensiling process, but it was solved with high dry matter content ingredients addition to promote the material stability.</p> 2021-01-29T17:38:00-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Empty body chemical composition of Nellore steers estimated by indirect methods 2021-07-12T14:59:09-03:00 G. Aferri A. S. C. Pereira R. R. P. S. Corte S. L. Silva M. Z. Moreira P. R. Leme <p>Thirty-six Nellore steers at 20 months of age on average and initial body weight of 360 kg were fed <em>ad libitum</em> for 78 days and two levels of feed restriction for 58 days and posterior <em>ad libitum</em> feeding for 78 days were used to estimate body composition using the methods of indirect deuterium oxide or the 9<sup>th</sup>-10<sup>th</sup>-11<sup>th</sup> ribs cut. The body water content was calculated with equations established for Nellore steers. The chemical body composition was different for the ether extract content. The animals subjected to feed restriction presented higher body fat content when estimated by deuterium than by the rib cut. The deuterium oxide or 9<sup>th</sup>-10<sup>th</sup>-11<sup>th</sup> ribs cut methods used for body composition determination were effective to estimate body contents for animals fed <em>ad libitum</em>, however, not for animals on feed restriction. Comparatively, the indirect method of deuterium oxide was better than the 9<sup>th</sup>-10<sup>th</sup>-11<sup>th</sup> ribs cut method to estimate body composition in Nellore steers submitted to feed restriction; however, both methods were similar in animals fed <em>ad libitum</em>.</p> 2021-07-12T14:59:08-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Replacement of common urea with protected urea in sheep supplement 2021-11-11T16:02:27-02:00 P. R. Ribeiro E. B. Schultz L. F. Sousa G. L. Macedo Júnior <p>The objective was to evaluate the effect of replacing common urea with protected urea in the supplement on the nutrient intake and digestibility and metabolic profile of sheep. Five adult sheep, with an average age of 4 years and an initial average body weight of 50 ± 4.03 kg, were used. The diet consisted of sorghum silage, supplemented with a multiple mixture of corn bran, soybean meal, white salt, mineral salt, common urea (CU) or protected urea (PU). The experimental design was a 5x5 Latin square. Treatments consisted of: control or 100% CU, 75% CU and 25% PU, 50% CU and 50% PU, 25% CU and 75% PU and 100% PU. Collections and analysis of feed, feces, urine and blood were carried out to assess intake, digestibility and blood metabolites. Analysis of variance and SNK test were applied considering 5% significance. Nonparametric data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis at a significance level of 5%. The replacement of common urea with protected urea did not (P&gt; 0.05) alter the intake of dry matter, crude protein and water, and the dry matter digestibility. The production of urine and feces, and the density of urine also did not (P&gt; 0.05) show statistical difference with the replacement of common urea with protected urea. As for protein and energy metabolites, only glycemia showed variation (P &lt;0.05), with the proportion of 75% CU and 25% PU, indicating the highest concentration of glucose in relation to the replacement of 0, 50 and 100% PU in the supplement. There are no benefits from partial or total replacement of common urea with protected urea in sheep supplementation.</p> 2021-11-11T15:13:45-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teeth wear of piglets in lactation phase: performance and injuries aspects 2021-02-01T09:31:21-02:00 J. Tasca B. P. Santarosa H. B. Hooper S. R. S. Surian <p>Piglets are born with a total of eight teeth and on the second day of life, teeth wear management is carried out to avoid lesions on the sows' ceilings and on the faces of the piglets. For this, an electric wearer is used that only wears the apex of the teeth. In this experiment, a comparison of twelve litters divided into: a control group (CG) was performed, which the intact teeth were kept ; with the management of tooth wear and treatment group (TG). The animals were followed from the first day of life until weaning.&nbsp; The weighing was carried out on the respective days of life: second, seventh, fourteenth and twenty-first. It was observed that the fights between piglets and for the ceilings did not present significant difference, on the other hand the injuries caused by the teeth and the dirt injuries had significant difference with greater presence in the group without wear. In the comparison of the piglets’ daily weight gain, there was noted that no significant difference between two groups was observed, which can state that the non-wear of the teeth does not interfere in the daily weight gain, however it was concluded that the animals without wear (CG) had a higher incidence of dirt lesions.&nbsp;</p> 2021-01-29T17:47:37-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accuracy and reliability of two body weight estimators based on linear measurements in horses 2021-08-31T09:37:40-03:00 M. P. G. Rezende N. M. Oliveira P. L. S. Carneiro <p>Estimation methods are routinely used to determine the body weight of a horse when a scale is not available. However, it is important to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of these predictions since nutritional management and drug dosage, among others, require knowledge of the animal’s weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of estimated weights of horses using two prediction models, and to discuss the effect of the predictions on animal management. Seventy-one adult male animals (40 mules and 31 horses) were weighed on a precision scale (control weight). Chest circumference and body length were measured and used to estimate body weight using the two models. Accuracy was evaluated by analysis of fit indices, comparison of squared prediction errors, delta Akaike’s information criterion, and decomposition of the mean squared error of prediction. For economic evaluation, three production scenarios were established: simple (worming + forage), traditional (worming + forage + concentrate mixture), and traditional with supplementation (worming + forage + concentrate mixture + supplementation). Economic values were collected through a pricing survey carried out in the Midwest region of Brazil and converted to US dollars. Percent differences in costs were evaluated using Fisher’s exact test. The most suitable model for the morphometric profile of the animals was that using a combination of chest circumference and body length. The differences in economic values between production scenarios were significant (P&lt;0.05). Losses using the inadequate model are 10% higher compared to control; thus, in a facility with 20 equids that uses this model, the losses are ≈ US$ 10,000/year. When investment in a scale is not possible, it is fundamental to evaluate which model is more compatible with the body biotype of the herd since all types of management that depend on the body weight of the animals may result in significant economic losses.</p> 2021-08-31T09:37:40-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of reactivity and stunning efficiency in cattle before and after slaughterhouse staff training 2021-05-14T15:02:44-03:00 L. S. R. Cunha L. S. Escobar C. J. Piazzon H. P. Flores A. G. Gonçalves D. M. Oliveira <p>The study aimed to evaluate the reactivity, as well as the efficacy of stunning in cattle before and after staff training at the slaughterhouse. For reactivity evaluation, vocalization, slips, falls, use of shockers and presence of lying animal were observed for handling in the corridor, bathing station and at the end of raceway in front of the stunning box. For stunning evaluation, shots applied to each animal to complete stunning and the distance between the shot site and the correct position for stunning were measured. Through mapping the main deficiencies and failures in each handling region, a training was elaborated focused on adoption of correct handling practices. After the informational lecture, data was collected again using the same procedures and in the same handling regions. After training, the quantification of all handling variables was considerably lower in the three regions of the pre-slaughter course, and there was a significant reduction in the bathing station and at the end of raceway in front of the stunning box (P&lt;0.05). In addition, there was a significant increase in stunning performed at the correct shooting position and within 2 cm of the target (P&lt;0.001), as well as reduction of shots applied outside of 3 cm (P&lt;0.001). The number of shots required for complete stunning also decreased (P&lt;0.05). Staff training was extremely efficient in reducing harmful variables to animal welfare and in increasing good practices in pre-slaughter handling.</p> 2021-05-14T15:02:43-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occurrence of vaccine or drug reactions in bovine carcass 2021-05-14T15:19:08-03:00 U. J. A. Souza D. L. Manini J. E. G. Gomes L. C. Pinto B. M. S. Souza <p>The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of abscesses from vaccine or drug reactions in the muscle tissue of bovine carcasses and to establish the location of these abscesses in half-carcasses, in a slaughterhouse located in the northwest of the State of São Paulo, under the supervision of the State Inspection Service (SISP). It was possible to identify that 13.50% of the half-carcasses evaluated had vaccine abscesses and of these 91.46% were in the forequarter, 52.50% of these affected the neck, and 27.50% fell. Currently, there is still the presence of abscesses in bovine carcasses from vaccine and drug reactions, which are found in greater proportion in the forequarter, due to the recommendations of this region for the application of vaccines and medications.</p> 2021-05-14T15:19:08-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of mastitis and characterization of milking management of dairy cows in northwestern Sao Paulo state 2021-08-31T09:21:35-03:00 J. V. S. Fuzatti R. C. Camargo M. S. Pinto K. L. S. Souza D. F. R. Frias <p>A falta da aplicação de boas práticas no manejo de ordenha pode resultar na ocorrência de uma das principais doenças que acomete o rebanho leiteiro no Brasil, a mastite. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de mastite em rebanhos leiteiros da região Noroeste Paulista e propor a implantação de boas práticas de manejo de ordenha. Participaram da pesquisa 9 propriedades rurais, com 223 vacas em lactação. Todas as vacas em foram avaliadas por meio da realização do teste da caneca de fundo escuro e CMT (“California Mastitis Test”). Além disso foi realizada observação da conduta do funcionário durante a ordenha, estrutura física da propriedade, manejo com os animais e tratamento das vacas secas. Os resultados obtidos foram tabulados, avaliados para elaboração de um fluxograma de ações de boas práticas. A prevalência de mastite subclínica detectada foi de 30,5%, 66,7% possuíam ordenha mecânica e 89% tanque de expansão, mas 77,7% não efetuavam higiene dos equipamentos após ordenha. Pré e pós-dipping não eram realizados por 89%, 66,6% não faziam linha de ordenha e ninguém realizava testes de detecção de mastite. Conclui-se que a mastite subclínica está presente nos rebanhos avaliados. Pode-se observar o manejo adotado em cada propriedade e elencar os principais pontos críticos sendo eles relacionados principalmente a falhas de manejo e higiene de ordenha e equipamentos. A implantação do fluxograma de boas práticas de ordenha é de extrema importância para o produtor, uma vez que, o principal método para evitar e controlar a infecção é a prevenção.</p> 2021-08-31T09:21:35-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Serologic profile of bovine alfaherpesvirus type1 (BOHV-1) and pestivírus A (BVDV-1) in herds of a family farming of the Sao Paulo State 2021-10-29T14:42:44-02:00 V. C. M. Curci R. L. D. Costa B. Alexandrino L. A. Borges A. H. C. N. Romaldini F. C. G. Moreli A. R. Bozzi S. I. Samara <p>Serum samples from 719 dairy cattle of reproductive age, from 47 farms in a settlement in the municipality of Andradina, São Paulo, were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against the Nebraska strain of BoHV-1 and Singer type 1 of BVDV-1, using the virus neutralization technique (VN). Regarding BoHV-1, 72.0% of the samples analyzed (518/719) were positive, with a geometric mean of antibody titers of 318. For BVDV-1, 44.8% of the samples were reactive, only one farm had no reactive animals, and the majority of antibody titers found in the animals' sera were low. The results of this study revealed that BoHV-1 was present in all of the studied herds, with moderate titration in the majority of cases, with the presence of some high individual titers among the tested animals. Also, even with the reactivation or circulation of BoHV-1 in herds, the clinical disease was not observed, an epidemiological finding that also applied to BVDV-1. In view of the results obtained, the circulation of diseases in family farm herds in the studied region was evident, suggesting the need to study local risk factors and improve health education policies as a way to prevent or reduce the prevalence of these diseases.</p> 2021-10-29T14:42:44-02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Economic analysis of the use of wet brewery residue in sheep diets 2021-05-25T15:07:25-03:00 I. C. S. Silva J. A. A. Cutrim Junior D. R. B. Brito A. L. Pereira J. B. Costa W. J. E. Mochel Filho E. M. G. Silva <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the production costs involved in sheep confinement fed diets containing different inclusion levels of wet brewery residue (WBR). The diets were constituted by different WBR proportions in the concentrate (0, 10, 20 and 30%). A total of 20 sheep were used, with an average body weight of 17.5 ± 1.5 kg, at 8 months of age. The experimental period lasted 77 days. The prices of feed ingredients, purchase and sale values of kg of body weight (BW) of the animals practiced in the local market and the interest rate were considered in the economic analysis, using the year 2015 as a reference. In addition, production performance, zootechnical and economic data, and investment and costing expenses were considered to determine the economic indicators. A linear response was observed in terms of average daily gain (P=0.0035) and feed efficiency (P=0.0042) in diets consisting of 20 and 30% WBR, with 0.196 kg of BW/day and 0.291 kg of BW/intake, respectively. The diet containing 20% WBR resulted in greater total production (7,503.07 kg of BW/year), greater daily production (9.78 kg of BW), and lower total expenditure on investments (R$ 0.371/kg of BW). The lowest total expenses (R$ 64,368.99) and the highest profit (R$ 1.32/kg of BW) were observed in the diet with 30% of WBR. The economic analysis showed the financial feasibility of including 20% and 30% WBR in diets for confined sheep.</p> 2021-05-25T14:33:39-03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##